The core components of Veeam Backup & Replication are Veeam backup server, proxy server(s), and repository. The sections below describe these components in more detail, as well as optional components of the solution.
•Veeam backup server — the “brain” of the solution, responsible for job management and scheduling, indexing tasks, and general orchestration of the backup and replication environment.
•Proxy servers — the “muscle” for the solution. These servers read data from the VM snapshots, deduplicate and compress that data, and send it on its way. In the case of replication, they also receive the replica data and write it to the new replica, acting as the data movers to transfer data from the source to the target environment.
•Repositories — these systems provide the “memory”, storing backup images for future restores, and important meta-data used during backup and replication. A repository may be a Windows or Linux server or a NAS device which supports CIFS access.
To learn more, you can also refer to Veeam University online training video at http://www.veeam.com/backup-replication-university.html.